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The Lore Book of the High Elven Tongue intends to be a quick introductory guide to the Quenya language as deviced by J.R.R. Tolkien in his writings. Quenya, in the mythology, was the langauge spoken by the Noldor, the High Elves that crossed the Great Sea in pursuit of Melkor, and also in pursuit of a vast new world.
Although it wasn't even close to be empty. In the eastern shores of the Belegaer awated the long forgotten Sindar, whom had developed their own language and writing symbols, along with new creatures, such as dwarves, and the wild lands of Beleriand.
The questing souls of these elves led them to undergo their biggest deeds and worst mistakes. They built the finest cities that Middle-Earth would ever sea, and stood up to the worst of evils. The fires Fëanor nurtured would never completely die. And so is their fate.
Their language, just as they were, is one of beauty and strength. And everywhere the Noldor went, it was known as the language of wisdom and ancient lore.


The Wordlist

The Quettaparma Quenyanna is a very complete worlist of Quenya. It is not intended for dictionary-like use, and in no way is it complete, especially since the language isn't complete.

Quenya Grammar


Quenya has five vowels, a, e, i, o, u, short and long; the long vowels are marked with an accent: á, é, í, ó, ú. The vowel a is extremely frequent. The quality of the vowels resembles the system in Spanish or Italian rather than English. To clarify the pronunciation for readers used to English orthography, Tolkien sometimes adds a diaeresis over some vowels (e.g. Manwë rather than Manwe to indicate that the final e is not silent, or Eärendil to indicate that the vowels e and a are pronounced separately and not as in English ear). The diphthongs are ai, oi, ui, eu, iu. The consonants are for the most part the same as in English, with the sibilants as the main exception: Ch as in church does not occur, neither does j as in joy, and instead of sh, zh (the latter like s in pleasure), Quenya has a sound like the German ich-Laut, spelt hy by Tolkien (e.g. hyarmen "south"). Quenya also lacks th. It should also be noted that the voiced plosives b, d, g only occur in the clusters mb, nd/ld/rd and ng . There are no initial consonant clusters. Normally there are no final clusters either; words end either in one of the single consonants t, s, n, l, r or in a vowel, more often the latter. Medially between vowels, a limited number of consonant clusters may occur; those described by Tolkien as "frequent" or "favoured" are in italics: cc, ht, hty, lc, ld, ll, lm, lp, lqu, lt, lv, lw, ly, mb, mm, mn, mp, my, nc, nd, ng, ngw, nn, nqu, nt, nty, nw, ny, ps, pt, qu (for cw), rc, rd, rm, rn, rqu, rr, rt, rty, rs, rw, ry, sc, squ, ss, st, sty, sw, ts, tt, tw, ty, x (for ks).


The noun has four numbers and nine or ten declinations.


Singular and plural need no explanation. The other numbers are partitive plural, wich marks a meaning of "some" or "many" (some out of a larger group), and dual indicates the meaning of a natural pair, like a pair of hands, etc. The form of each number is different depending on each declination. Look below for the specific cases.


Quenya has a structure which differs from english in a very peculiar way. The same way as greek, instead of using prepositions to connect and formalize a specific kind of relation between nouns, a suffix is "attached" to the noun, with the same functional results. Learning to use this system is vital for the correct interpretation of the language, and requires also some skill in recognizing the different grammatical structures and functions in your own language. (Strangely, Quenya has much more similarities to latin derived languages, and should result easier to those whose mother tongues have such origin.)
When working with nouns, there is a high chance that the merging of the suffix to be used and the noun result in an invalid consonant cluster, the way to avoid this is to insert a vowel between them. I have been using "e" for singular constructions, and "i" for plural. This aplies as well when using pronouns, possessive pronouns or any other kind of suffixes. I have tried to indicate every possible alternative for the use of the suffix under each declination; also, when reading, keep in mind there are exceptions pointed out through the text.


The function of the nominative is to be the subject of the verb.

Singular: no special ending
Plural: suffix -r if noun ends in vowel, except for ë. Suffix -i if noun ends in consonant or ë (Displaces final ë, Ex. lassë -> lassi). If noun ends in , suffix -r (example norië -> noriër, hardly norii).
Partitive Plural: adds the ending -li, -ili for consonat ending cases
Dual: adds a -t ending, except when the last consonant of the stem is -d or -t, in these cases a -u is added instead and replaces any vowels (example: "Alda" -----> "Aldu").


The accusative form is used in Book Quenya only, and during the exile of the Noldor it disappeared and was absorbed by the nominative. Modern writers seem to never use the accusative declination. Anyway, its purpose is to mark the noun is the object of the verb.

Singular: Lengthening of the final vowel, if any.
Plural: adds -i even for nouns ending in a vowel.
Partitive Plural: adds -lí or -ilí for consonant cases.
Dual: same as nominative (no distinct accusative in -t), the final -u becomes .


The dative has the ending -n. It is best translated with the prepositions "to" and "for", and it oftens corresponds to the indirect object in english.

Singular: -n or -en in consonant cases.
Plural: -in for all cases (displaces final -e only).
Partitive Plural: -lin or -ilin in consonant cases.
Dual: -nt, -inu for nouns ending in -u.


The genitive corresponds to the "´s" in English, or an "- of -" construction. The ending is -o and displaces a final -a but not other vowels. This declination indicates origin, rather than ownership, but at its modern use the difference fades. See Possessive below.

Singular: -o, it displaces the final -a but not other vowels.
Plural: nominative plural + -on.
Partitive Plural: -lion or -ilion for consonant endings.
Dual: -to.


The functions of this declination is to express ownership, and the difference with the genitive is that the possessive denotes ownership at the time of narration (be it past, present or future) while the genitive would be that the object had its origin from the "owner". But the genitive later intruded in the functions of the possessive. The ending is -va. It could also be named translated as an adejectival case for it used to make adjectives out of nouns, example: taurë huinéva "dark forest".

Singular: -va or -wa for consonant endings.
Plural: -iva for all cases (displaces final -e only).
Partitive plural: -líva or -ilíva for consonant endings.
Dual: -twa.


This case has the ending -ssë and carries the meaning "in" or "on". The function it seems to point to is to direct location. I have used this case often in replacement of "at", as I found no independent particle for such a preposition.

Singular: -ssë or -essë for consonant endings.
Plural: -ssen or -issen for consonant endings.
Partitive Plural: -lissen or -ilissen for consonant endings.
Dual: -tsë.


This case has the ending -nna, and carries the meaninig "to", "into" or "upon". Its function tends to point relative direction. It can't be mistaken with the Dative ending which also can translate as "to".

Singular: -nna or -enna for consonant endings.
Plural: -nnar or -innar for consonant endings.
Partitive Plural: -linnar or -ilinnar for consonant endings.
Dual -nta.


This case has the ending -llo and carries the meaning "from" or "out of".

Singular: -llo or -ello for consonant endings.
Plural: -llon or -illon for consonant endings.
Partitive Plural: -lillon or -ilillon for consonant endings.
Dual: -lto.


This cases has the ending -nen and it´s function is to mark the instrument by wich something was made, the cause or the reason. A translation would be done with the prepositions "by" or "with", but always keeping the meaning of the declination.

Singular: -nen or -enen for consonant endings.
Plural: -inen for all cases (displaces final -e only).
Partitive Plural: -línen or -ilínen for consonant endings.
Dual -nten.


This has been called the misterious case, listed only in a letter Tolkien sent to Dick Plotz in the half of the sixties. The ending is -s; some authors seem to use it as an alternative locative ending.

Singular: -s or -es for consonant endings.
Plural: -is for all cases (displaces final -e only).
Partitive Plural: -lis or -ilis for consonant endings.
Dual: -tes.


This form of suffixes provide with the posibility of forming new nouns out of action verbs: work -> worker, and such.

  • Male agental suffix -indo, female -indë.
  • Neutral agental suffix -r, male form -ro, female form -rë. (Not always agental, but instead marking a relation between the noun and a person)
  • Impersonal agental suffix -il, useful to design tool related to a specific work, but which may also function as neutral personal agental particle.


The diminutive is formed with a suffix, -llë., or -incë.


The adjective agrees in number with the noun it describes, and the plurals depend on the final letter of the word. In all cases, except for the consonant one, the ending displaces the vowel.

adjectives ending in -a plural form adding
adjectives ending in plural form adding -i
adjectives ending in -ea plural form adding -ië
adjectives ending in consonant plural form adding -i

Superlatives and Comparatives

The superlative is made with the preffix an-, example Ancalima "most bright". There is no record on how to construct the comparative, but an element yonta- "more" is mentioned in an early wordlist.

The Article

There is only one definite article "i". It is both singular and plural. There is no indefinite article, and the absence of "i" may determine the noun is indefinite.


There are two main classes of verbs:

  • the basic verbs are just a naked root with no ending; examples are quat- "fill", mar- "abide", etc.
  • the derived verbs, wich are stems with an ending often -ya or -ta.

All verbs also agree in number with their subject by adding a suffix -r to whatever is the final tense word.


The Infinitive

The infinite is formed by adding the suffix -ië and dropping the final vowel (if any). For the derived verbs in -ya a formation like "metyië" is hardly possible because the compund yi is not valid in quenya. So it is probable that the whole ending -ya is dropped and replaced with -ië, example "metië". The function of this tense is gramatical, and it is valid as a "to + verb" formation.

The Present

This tense is formed by adding -a to the verb, and if it is already present it becomes invisible. For basic verbs like sil- the suffix -a is added and the vowel of the stem is lengthened, example "síla".

The Aorist

Basic Verbs seem to have a distinct form called aorist, in wich many verbs in Etym are listed (in first person aorist or simple aorist, example rucin), and it denotes a timeless truth beyond specific tenses. The ending of the aorist is , -i if any endings are added.

The Past

The regular past of the derived verbs is made by adding the suffix -në. For the basic verbs the past tense, if the last consonant of the stem is r, n, or m, the past suffix is -në. Otherwise the n is placed before the consonant, double in the case of n (if this consonant is p, instead of n it is m, example "top" "tompë") and then the e is added, example "quet-" "quentë". For verbs with final vowel in -l the suffix -në is assimilated to -lë, also double.

The Perfect

The perfect tense of basic verbs is made by adding the suffix -ië to the stem, lengthening the stem vowel and preffixing the augment of the stem, example "tul-" "utúlie". For the derived verbs the stem vowel cannot be lengthened because a consonant cluster follows, and the final vowel is replaced with the suffix -ië, but for the rest the construction is the same, example "harna" "aharnië". For the derived verbs ending in -ya it is probable that the whole ending is replaced with -ië like with the infinitive, and the stem vowel is lengthened, example "metya" "emétië".

The Future

The future tense is formed by dropping the final vowel of the stem (if any) and adding the suffix -uva. For the basic verbs, If the last consonant of the stem is not n, m, or r, the letter n is added before the last consonant, like in the basic verb "quat-" to "quantuva".

The Imperative

The imperative is formed with the ending -a, just like in the present, but no lengthening is done with basic verbs. THE IMPERATIVE HAS NO NUMBER DEFINITION.


There is no record about a subjunctive, but it is given a "wishing formula": formed with "nai (be it that) + a verb in the future".


The Present Participle

The present partciple describes the condition you are in when you do something. In english it is formed with the verbal stem + -ing, the corresponding quenya ending is -la. If the stem vowel is not followed by a consonant cluster or another vowel, it is lengthened: "hlapu" to "hlápula". For the basic verbs, it is posible to turn them into continuative stems by lengthening the vowel of the stem and adding -a before the participle ending is added: "sil-" to "sílala". But the conection vowel may also be -i- with no lengthening of the stem vowel: "sil-" to "silila". This participle is indeclinable and has no plural different construction.

The Past Participle

In quenya the past participle is formed by adding -na to the corresponding verb. For basic verbs, if the last consonant is not n, m or r, the suffix -ina is added instead (if the stem vowel is not followed by a consonant cluster it is lengthened, example: "rac-" to "rácina"). If the stem ends in -l the ending is changed to -da, example: "mel-" to "melda". This participle agrees in number with the noun it describes, in wich case the plural is -në or -inë.


The verb "to be" is very irregular. The most common is plural nar. The past is plural ner, and the future is núva plural nuvar.

There is also another verb for "to be". Present tense ye, negative úye. Future tense yéva, negative úva. I think the plural could be adding -r like with other verbs, but being these verbs so irregular I´m not sure.

There is another form of the verb "to be", but with a sense of "exist". This is ëa.


It is easy to run into difficulties in this specific topic, since there is no formalized known path to make a negative out of a verb. Following the common sense, we have a couple glossed words for no/not:

  • The word lá, translated as both "no" and "not", but relates specifically in the denial of facts.
  • The verbal stems u-, um-, translated as "do not", with its irregular past tense úmë, and imperative tense vá.
  • The preffix ú-, meaning "no-, un-, not-", sometimes with negative connotations, and not exclusive to verbs.
  • The preffix il-, said to mean more the opposite, the reversal, beyond the negation, also not exclusive to verbs.
  • The preffix ala-, translated as "not-, un-", but with the special effect of turning the following verb into its past participle.

If there is any other practical way to acomplish a negative form, either Tolkien never mentioned, or it is present in unpublished material.


This is an attempt, and nothing more, to compile a table of the pronominal endings used on verbs:

1. person sg: -n or -nyë "I" (-nyë is preferred)
2. person sg and pl, courteous: -lyë "thou, you"
2. person sg and pl, familiar: *-ccë "you"
3. person sg. masc.: -ro "he"
3. person sg. fem.: -"she"
3. person sg. neuter: -s "it" (can also be used as a short ending for both "he" and "she")
1. person pl. -mmë: "we" (exclusive), -lmë "we" (inclusive)
1. person dual *-lvë: "we" (inclusive, "thou and I")
3. person plural -ntë "they"

The possessive endings used on nouns for the most part correspond to the pronominal endings used on verbs, but have the ending -a:

1. person sg: -nya "my"
2. person sg and pl, courteous: -lya "thy, your"
2. person sg and pl, familiar: -cca "your"
3. person sg: -rya "his, her" (and possibly "its")
1. person pl: -mma: "our" (exclusive), -lma "our" (inclusive)
1. person dual: -lva: "our" (inclusive, "thou and I")
3. person pl.: -nta "their"

The independent and emphatical pronouns, used as a separate word, are:

1. person sg: inyë "I"
2. person sg and pl: elyë "you"
1. person pl: emmë "we" (exclusive), elmë "we" (inclusive)
3. person pl: entë "they"

There is no known 3 person in singular, this list itself is very hypothetical. The suffix personal pronouns should be preferred to the independent.

The suffix personal objects are:

1. person sg: -n "me"
2. person sg and pl: -l "thee, you"
3. person sg: -s "him, her, it"
1. person pl: -m "us" (very hypothetical)
3. person pl: -t "them"

The independent personal objects are:

1. person sg: ni "me"
2. person sg and pl: le "thee"
3. person sg: se "him, her, it"
1. person pl: me "us"
3. person pl: te "them"

This independent variation should be used only when applied with declination suffixes, for example nin "for me". Otherwise, use the suffix objects.

Who Luthien was

Farewell sweet earth and northern sky, for ever blest, since here did lie and here with lissom limbs did run beneath the Moon, beneath the Sun, Lúthien Tinúviel more fair than mortal tongue can tell. Though all to ruin fell the world and were dissolved and backward hurled unmade into the old abyss, yet were its making good, for this the dusk, the dawn, the earth, the sea that Lúthien for a time should be.

Man Tasinyë né

Namárië lissë kemen ar formenwa menel, an voro laitanë, an sinome né caita ar sinome hroanen tyelca né nornoroa undu Isil, undu Anar, Lúthien Tindómerel yanta vanima i fírima lambë voro nyarë. Nan ilya an atalantë lantanë Ambar ar né úcarna ar nanehortanë úcarna undumënna enwina, né cáralarya mára, i histen, i ara, i kemen, i Eär i Lúthien lúlin núva.

The Last Ship

...for the Third Age was over, and the Days of the Rings were passed, and an end was come of the story and song of those times...

I Tella Cirya

...an i Nelya Randan né vánwa, ar i Sanar Cormaron ner vánë, ar metta né túlina quento ar linde lúmeon...

Tuor in Vinyamar Halls

Thus he came at length to the deserted halls of Vinyamar beneath Mount Taras, and he entered in, and found there the shield and hauberk, and the sword and helm, that Turgon had left there by the command of Ulmo long before; and he arrayed himself in those arms, and went down to shore.

Tuor Vinyamaressë Mardi

Sin tullero andassë cumnë mardinnar Vinyamarwa undu Oron Taras, ar mi lendero, ar hirnë i turma ar hroavaryat, ar i macil ar turmacár, i Turcáno hehtanë herennen Ulmo andavë vanwiessë; ar collerot, ar lendë nún falasenna.


  1. horavaryat: The word is lit. hroa "body" plus varya- "protect" with a nominal ending -at.
  2. turmacár: The word is lit. turma "shield" plus cár "head".

The Trees of Valinor

And as they watched, upon the mound there came forth two slender shoots; and silence was over all the world in that hour, nor was there any other sound save the chanting of Yavanna. Under her song the saplings grew and became fair and tall, and came to flower; and thus there awoke in the world the Two Trees of Valinor.

Aldu Valinóreva

Ar ve tirnentë, or i coronna etuller minna eälë lenwi tuimat; ar ilamma né or ilya Ambar i lúmessë, ar únë lamma hequa i Yavanno lírala. Undu linderya i tuimat randortaner ar eänë vanimë ar hallë, ar tuller lóten; ar sin cuivaner Ambaressë Aldu Valinóreva.


  1. minna eälë: Lit. "into exisiting".
  2. lenwi: Lit. "thin".
  3. ilamma: Lacking a word for "silence", this contruction was constructed from the prefix il-, wich modifies the meaning of the word into its opposite, and the latter is lamma "sound (in general)", thus "the opposite of sound".
  4. randortaner: As with "silence", the verb "grow" does not yet have any quenya equivalent, except for a verb "grow old, wear out" yerya-, but it does not seem to fit the correct meaning here. The replacement here is made from the noun randa "age" and the verb orta "rise", lit. "Raise age".

Song of Durin's Awakening

The world was young, the mountains green,
No stain yet on the Moon was seen,
No words were laid on stream or stone,
When Durin woke and walked alone.
He named the nameless hills and dells;
He drank from yet untasted wells;
He stooped and looked in Mirrormere,
And saw a crown of stars appear,
As gems upon a silver thread,
Above the shadow of his head.

The world was fair, the mountains tall,
In Elder Days before the fall
Of mighty Kings in Nargothrond
And Gondolin, who now beyond
The Western Seas have passed away:
The world was fair in Durin's Day.

A king he was on carven throne
In many-pillared halls of stone
With golden roof and silver floor,
And runes of power upon the door.
The light of sun and star and moon
In shining lamps of crystal hewn
Undimmed by cloud or shade of night
There shown forever far and bright.

There hammer on the anvil smote,
There chisel clove, and graver wrote;
There forged was bladed and bound was hilt;
The delver mined the mason built.
There beryl, pearl, and opal pale
And metel wrought like fishes' mail,
Buckler and corslet, axe and sword,
And shining spears were laid in horde.

Unwearied then were Durin's folk;
Beneath the mountains music woke:
The harpers harped, the minstrels sang,
And at the gates the trumpets rang.

The world is grey, the mountains old,
The forge's fire is ashen-cold;
No harp is wrung, no hammer falls:
The darkness dwells in Durin's halls;
The shadow lies upon his tomb
In Moria, in Khazad-dûm.

But still the sunken stars appear
In dark and windless Mirrormere;
There lies his crown in water deep,
Till Durin wakes again from sleep.

Casataro Cuivë Lindë

I Ambar né nessa, i oronti laiqui,
Lá vaxë sín né cenna Isilessë,
Lá quettar nér caitanë celussë ar ondo,
Íre Casataro cuivanë ar vantanë eressë.
Estanëro i essevilti ambor ar nelli;
Suncëro ho sín alatyavë linyattallor;
Hautanero ar tirnë Hyelleringessë,
Ar cennë rië elenion tanië,
Ve míri telemna-lianna,
Or i lëo cáro.

I Ambar né vanima, i oronti halla,
Enwinë-Sanassen ilapa i lantë
Taurë-Aranion Naracostorondossë
Ar Ondolindë, ya sí pella
I Númenya Ëari avániër oa:
I Ambar né vanima mi Casataro Sana.

Aran néro pelehtana-mahalmassë
Mardessen Tarmalíva ondo
Undu laurëa tópa ar telemna paca,
Ar certar túreva i andonna.
I Cálë Anaro ar Elen ar Isil
Caltala-calmassen hyellëo pelehtana
Alanécë lumbonen ar lómin lómeva
Tanomë tananë tennoio haira ar calina.

Tanomë namba taminessë nambanë,
Tanomë ondorísil pelehtanë, ar tecindo tencë;
Tanomë carna në russë ar mapalemen
I caróta rondanë, i samno carnë.
Tanomë hyelerë, marilla, hyelondo marya
Ar tinca canta ve lingwion varmë,
Turma ar hroavarmë, pelecco ar macil,
Ar caltala ehti ner caitanë hormassë.

Alayeryë san ner Casataro casaliër;
Undu i oronti lindelë cuivanë:
I Nandaror nandaner, nyellor lirner,
Ar andossë i rombar lamner.

I Ambar na sinda, i oronti enwinë,
I tirino nárë ná ringa ve apanár;
Lá nandë anandië, lá namba alantië:
I Mornië mára mardissen Casataro;
I Fuinë caita noirennarya
Moraltassë, Casarrondossë.
Nan er i nútanë eleni atánië
Mi morna ar súreviltë Hyelleringë;
En caita riero nénessë tumna,
Tenna Casataro ciuva ata fumello.


  1. Casaroto is what I invented for Durin's Quenya name, someting possibly meaning Dwarven father, but very unclear.
  2. Hyelleringë is the translation of Kheled-zâram into Quenya, from its original meaning "glass lake".
  3. Naracostorondo is the translation of Nargothrond from Sindarin into Quenya. (My interpretation)
  4. Moralta is the translation of Moria from Sindarin into Quenya. (My interpretation)
  5. There is a high number of hypothethical words, and invention, the most radical include the equivalents for "beril" -> hyelerë (glass-steel), "opal" -> hyelondo (glass-stone), "There" -> tanomë, "Mail/corslet" -> hroavarmë (lit. body protection), "chisel" -> ondorísil (lit. stone cutter), to name just a few.

Aragorn's Song About the Oathbreakers

Over the land there lies a long shadow,
westward reaching wings of darkness.
The Tower trembles; to the tombs of kings
doom approaches. The Dead awaken;
for the hour is come for the oathbreakers;
at the Stone of Erech they shall stand again
and hear there a horn in the hills ringing.
Whose shall the horn be? Who shall call them
from the grey twilight, the forgotten people?
The heir of him to whom the oath they swore.
From the North shall he come, need shall drive him:
he shall pass the Door to the Paths of the Dead.

Elessaro Lindë I-vandaracindorin

Or i nórë caita anda fuinë,
númenna rahtala rámar morniëo.
I Mindon rúca; i noirin aranion
manar harta. I Qualinéri coivanë;
an i lúmë utúlië I-vandaracindorin;
Ondossë Erehtëo ata ortuvantë
ar hlaruvar romba i ambossen nyélala.
Manwa núva i romba? Man rahtuvat
i tindómello sinda, i hehtanalië?
I Aryon sëo yan i vanda ventanëntë.
Formenello tuluváro, maurë tanuvas i tië:
taruváro i Ando Tiënnar Qualinériva.

Boromir's Riddle

Seek for the Sword that was broken:
In Imladris it dwells;
There shall be counsels taken
Stronger than Morgul-spells.
There shall be shown a token
That Doom is near at hand,
For Isildur's Bane shall waken,
And the Halfling forth shall stand.

Voromíro Nulla Eques

Tuhta Macilen ya né rácina:
Núranandessë máras;
En nuvar hlarinë márë equesi
yontë tulcë ya Morculu-carmë.
En núva tanana tengwë
Ya Mandë ná harë mássë,
an Isilduro nwalcólë núva coivana,
ar i Peryanér etortuva.


When the black breath blows
and death's shadow grows
and all lights pass,
come athelas! come athelas!
Life to the dying
In the king's hand lying!

Asëa Aranion

Lússë i Morë Hwesta súya
ar Qualmëo Huinë ëa yontalta
ar ilya calar autar,
Túla Asëa Aranion! Túla Asëa Aranion!
Cuina an i firnalë
Massë Arano Caitala!

Riddle of Strider

All that is gold does not glitter,
Not all those who wander are lost;
The old that is strong does not wither,
Deep roots are not reached by the frost.

From the ashes a fire shall be woken,
A light from the shadows shall spring;
Renewed shall be blade that was broken,
The crownless again shall be king.

Lairë Telcontaro

Ilya i ná malta úmirilya,
lá ilyë yantë ranya nar vanwë;
i tulca enwinawë úquela,
nurë sundar arahtier lá ringwenen.

Erinillon nárë núva coivana,
cala lumbellon tuiuva;
encarna núva macil i né rácina,
i úrína ata núva aran.


  1. Lairë Telcontaro: this sentence literally translates as "Poem of Strider", since Riddle was not found.
  2. enwinawë: a compound formed by the word enwina "old" and the suffix -wë "man", since old is an adjective, it can't be referred as a noun, therefor the need of -wë "man". This note also refers to the phrase word order, where the original verse claims "the old that is strong does not wither", here literally reads "the strong old man does not wither".
  3. encarna: this word is a replacement for "renewed", since the quenya equivalent is obscure in its construction; it was changed for "remade", the base verb is car- "make", with the prefix en- "re-" and the past participle suffix -na resulting in carna "made".
  4. úrína: a simple construction that literally means "uncrowned" (from rína "crowned" and the negative particle preffix ú-), where the original verse reads "crownless". Both certainly could have the same meaning, since a translation is just an approximate expression of the original (and Tolkien himself, as he claimed, was the translator of the history of Arda, covered throughout many books, not just The Lord of the Rings).

Rhyme of Lore

Tall ships and tall kings
Three times three,
What brought they from the foundered land
Over the flowing sea?
Seven stars and seven stones
And one white tree.

Lairë Noldova

Hallë ciryar ar hallë arani
neldë lúr neldë,
man tuncet Atalantello
or i úlëa eär?
Otso eleni ar otso ondor
ar minë ninquë alda.


  1. Lairë Noldova: this sentence literally translates "Poem of Lore", since no word for Rhyme was found.
  2. tuncet: derives from the verb root tuc- "bring", the past tense transforms it to tunce "brought", with the object suffix "they" -t. This word was obtained from the Proto Eldarin roots, since no wordlist mentions the verb "bring", and it seems perfectly regular. It has a homophone, tuc- "draw (=pull)".
  3. Atalantello: from the word Atalantë "the fallen (Númenórë)", with the ablative case ending -llo "from".